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Refrigerants and their Application

Refrigerants and their Application Presented by Thomas E. Watson, P.E. Fellow ASHRAE McQuay International Staunton, Virginia USA 1 What is a Refrigerant? • In a refrigerating system, the medium of heat transfer which picks up heat by evaporating...

https://indyashrae.org/downloads/ref... 

Refrigerant Table: Explanation and Glossary of Terms

Refrigerant Table: Explanation and Glossary of Terms A reference list of refrigerants which is intended to provide an indication of the basic characteristics, properties and applications for a variety of refrigerants along with some replacement op...

https://www.hrai.ca/uploads/userfile... 

NEW, NATURAL AND ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS

refrigerant in the water/lithium bromide system, which consequently cannot operate below 0oC. The water/lithium bromide system is more efficiency than the ammonia/water system and is widely used for air conditioning in Japan, where the heat source...

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production... 

Classification of refrigerants - HYDROCARBONS21

Refrigerants are divided into three groups according to flammability: • Class 1 indicates refrigerants that do not show flame propagation when tested in air at 21°C and 101 kPa; • Class 2 indicates refrigerants having a lower flammability...

http://hydrocarbons21.com/files/pdf_... 

Refrigerants - NPTEL

refrigerants with limited solubility (e.g. R 22) special precautions should be taken while designing the system to ensure oil return to the compressor i) Dilelectric strength: This is an important property for systems using hermetic 2) 2 2. Refrig...

https://nptel.ac.in/content/storage2... 

Classification Of Refrigerants

Classification Of Refrigerants

http://www.ref-wiki.com/content/view... 

What are the Different Types of Refrigerant Gas?

What are the Different Types of Refrigerant Gas?

https://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-th... 

What is refrigerant? What is it found in? What are some of ...

What is refrigerant? What is it found in? What are some of ...

http://www.ecofeet.com.au/services/w... 

Refrigerants - HRAI

refrigerants for other applications (i.e. commercial refrigeration) •ASHRAE is developing a 15.2 standard for residential applications. Listed Equipment •60355-2-40 currently allows small amounts of flammable refrigerant. •Work is ongoing fo...

https://www.hrai.ca/uploads/userfile... 

CHARACTERISTICS OF REFRIGERANTS - RSES

Refrigerants for use in homes, theaters, stores, hospitals and other locations where people gather are universally selected from this group. Safety also can be attained by the use of many controls and the constant vigilance of trained operators. F...

http://www.rses.org/assets/serviceap... 

List of refrigerants - Wikipedia

367 rows  · Since over 100,000 refrigerant blends are possible, this list should only have notable …

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_o... 

Refrigerants Update - EPA

2. Reduce Refrigerant Leak To 10% Per Year & Reduce Refrigerant GWP By 50%* 5% Direct Warming Impact (Refrigerant Leakage) Eliminate 55% Of Global Warming Impact Reduce Direct Impact By 92% 3. Reduce Refrigerant Leak To 10% Per Year, Refrigera...

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production... 

Different Types Of Refrigerants: Most Comprehensive List

Hydrocarbon refrigerants Many hydrocarbon gasesused as refrigerants in manufacturing, commercial and domestic applications. Examples: 1. R170, Ethane, C2H6. 2. R290 , Propane C3H3. 3. R600, Butane, C4H10. 4. R600a, Iso-butane, C4H10. 5. Blends of...

https://engineeringunits.com/differe... 

UNIT 4 REFRIGERANTS - IGNOU

Refrigerants can be broadly classified based on the following: Working Principle Under this heading, we have the primary or common refrigerants and the secondary refrigerants. The primary refrigerants are those that pass through the processes of c...

http://ignou.ac.in/upload/Unit%204-3... 

April 2020 Standard 34 - ASHRAE

Apr 24, 2020  · New Refrigerants The tables on page 3 and 4 list the approved refrigerant numbers from the latest edition of Standard 34 and addenda that were assigned from 2010 onward. Global Warming Potential data listed in the ta...

https://www.ashrae.org/file%20librar... 

(PDF) Refrigerant types, issues, trends and future options

Feb 09, 2013  · Propane (R-290) and CO 2 (R-744) are being prop osed as new generation refrigerants, CO 2 is non-. flammable, non-ozone depleting, non-toxic and …

https://www.researchgate.net/publica... 

Screening for Next Generation Refrigerants

Current refrigerants (HFCs) are greenhouse gases; need for low-GWP refrigerants • Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol (2016); production & consumption of HFCs to be cut by more than 80 % over the next 30 years. • Emissions of CO. 2. ...

https://heatpumpingtechnologies.org/... 

Refrigerants for commercial refrigeration applications

refrigerant as a greenhouse gas when it escapes into the atmosphere. Essentially, all alternatives to R-12 and R-502 have substantially less direct GWP and are, therefore, con-sidered a move in the right direction. As a result, refrigerants with a...

https://www.rsd.net/fx/pdf/suite/Cop... 

New Refrigerants Designation and Safety Classifications

Selection of Refrigerants for the Future Will Need to Balance Performance (Capacity and Efficiency), Safety and Sustainability, and Total Cost of System Ownership. 1930s CFCs (R-12) Chlorine Single Bond High ODP Highest GWP 1950s HCFCs (R-22) Less...

https://climate.emerson.com/document... 

HVAC Refrigerant Evolution and Regulation

refrigerants to meet their compliance obligations. In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued regulations under the Clean Air Act to phase out the One of the constant themes throughout the history of the HVAC indus...

https://www.trane.com/Commercial/Upl... 

WHAT ARE A2L REFRIGERANTS & WHY DO WE NEED THEM?

relative impact that different refrigerants have on system design and safety. A list of the major flammability parameters is shown in Table 2, along with property data for R-1234yf, R-32, and R-290. R-1234yf is an HFO, while R-32 is an HFC. Both h...

https://www.opteon.com/en/-/media/fi... 

checklist & guidelines 2019 Refrigerant Compliance ...

calculation.pdf for further information. 02 Leak rate (% per year) = pounds of refrigerant added pounds of refrigerant in full charge x 365 days / year shorter of #days since refrigerant last added or 365 days x 100% Leak rate (% per year) = pound...

https://www.rsd.net/fx/pdf/suite/leg... 

Eco-friendly Refrigerants - Pcpolytechnic

refrigerant is a major factor in deciding the usefulness of a particular refrigerant. The important environmental and safety properties are: • a) Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP): According to the Montreal protocol, the ODP of refrigerants should...

http://www.pcpolytechnic.com/mechani... 

Refrigerants Roadmap Final Report 2014 - Energy

Refrigerants are used in a wide variety of HVAC&R equipment. The first generation of refrigerants included substances such as hydrocarbons, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. The second generation of refrigerants included chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and

https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/fi... 

GUIDE FOR THE USE OF HCs REFRIGERANTS R600a AND R290

6 SYSTEM Must have refrigerant identification and “Risk of fire” label CONDENSER Same as R404A / R134a system or slightly smaller EVAPORATOR Same as R404A / R134a system In case of roll bond evaporator, check supplier’s specifications. PIPIN...

https://www.embraco.com/wp-content/u... 

List_of_refrigerants - chemeurope.com

The following is a list of refrigerants with their R numbers, IUPAC chemical name, molecular formula, and CAS number. R number Name Formula CAS number R-10 Tetrachloromethane: CCl 4: 56-23-5 R-11 Trichlorofluoromethane CCl 3 F 75-69-4 R-12 Dichlor...

https://www.chemeurope.com/en/encycl... 

An introduction to A2L refrigerants and their use in ...

List of A2L refrigerants (those in bold are in current use; the others are beginning to appear on the market) Refrigerant Other names GWP Applications R-1234yf 4 Automotive A/C R-1234ze 6 Chillers, Aerosol Propellant R-32 675 R-410A replacement R-...

https://www.refcom.org.uk/media/1202... 

The Facts on Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

refrigerants - one with CFC R12 and three with HFC R134a, supposedly non flammable refrigerants! The point to be noted here is that all refrigerants become flammable due to the oil vapour content of the gases when being discharged from systems. Hy...

https://www.es-refrigerants.com/reso... 

ASHRAE Refrigerant Designations

May 25, 2021  · The tables contained on this page list approved refrigerant numbers from ANSI/ASHRAE 34-2019, Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants, the latest edition of Standard 34, which describes a shorthand way ...

https://www.ashrae.org/technical-res... 

Flammable Refrigerants: Fire Fighter Training Material ...

Refrigerants Training” funded by a DHS/FEMA Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program. This workshop summary report has been prepared by Sreenivasan Ranganathan and Victoria Hutchison, Research Project Managers at the Fire Protection Resear...

https://www.nfpa.org/-/media/Files/N... 

New Refrigerants Impact Standards and Codes

New Refrigerants Impact Standards and Codes The HVAC industry has gone through tremendous growth and a great number of changes since its inception in the early 1900s. Not only have the hardware and technology evolved, but also the refrigerants use...

https://www.shareddocs.com/hvac/docs... 

Refrigerants - Physical Properties

1) Production of R11 or CFC-11 was halted by the clean air act on January 1, 1996 2) Production of R12 or CFC-12 (Dichlorodifluoromethane) was halted by the clean air act on January 1, 1996 3) R22 or HCFC-22 is a single component HCFC refrigerant ...

https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/r... 

Global Warming Potential (GWP) of Refrigerants: Why are ...

component refrigerants. In the case of refrigerants which are mixtures (or blends) of more than one refrigerant, the GWP is calculated as a mass-weighted average of the individual components. More information and tables of GWP values can be found ...

https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/ha... 

Refrigerant options now and in the future White paper

refrigerants and evaluating the viability of new refrigerants as they are introduced. This paper contains a summarized look at our experience and knowledge, describing the background, trends, and drivers that frame the scenarios for present and fu...

https://www.danfoss.com/media/7174/l... 

LITERATURE REVIEW Reference List for low GWP Refrigerants ...

May 01, 2013  · Reference List for low GWP Refrigerants Testing . Ken Hickman . Johnson Controls Inc. 631 S.Richland Avenue . York, PA 17403 . May 1, 2013. This document provides a reference list of existing literature on testing of...

https://www.ahrinet.org/App_Content/... 

List of refrigerants. Complete list of refrigerants|LIST ...

refrigerants > multicolor, warranted ge 7 cubic foot freezer yon, my electrolytic kiddie, you ought to teethe subdivided, and I unharness you to jimmy fateful for what youve isometrical.You represent there was an list of refrigerants went and t...

https://sites.google.com/site/rikrox... 

Articles Refrigerants – Part 1: Properties and air ...

es. Class 1 indicates refrigerants that do not show flame propagation when tested in air (at 101 kPa and 21°C). Class 2 signifies refrigerants having a lower flammabil-ity limit (LFL) of more than 0.10 kg/m³ and a heat of combustion of l...

https://www.rehva.eu/fileadmin/REHVA... 

A2Ls: The Future is Here

Whenever you design, assemble or repair a system with Honeywell A2L refrigerants, you need approved components. Our new tool lets you search the list of components approved for our A2L refrigerants: Solstice® ze (R-1234ze), Solstice® yf ...

https://www.honeywell-refrigerants.c... 

Toxicity data to determine refrigerant concentration limits

66 zeotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and f...

https://www.ahrinet.org/App_Content/... 

5.4 Refrigerant types - SWEP

Refrigerants are divided into groups according to their chemical composition. Following the discovery that some of these chemical compounds may be harmful to the environment, they are being replaced with more environmentally friendly alternatives ...

https://www.swep.net/refrigerant-han... 

High-GWP Refrigerants | California Air Resources Board

A time horizon of 100 years is used by regulators (e.g., the California Air Resources Board). CARB maintains a list of GWPs for some common refrigerants. For more information, please visit the IPCC website. The most common refrigerant today, R-22,...

https://ww2.arb.ca.gov/resources/doc... 

“Low GWP” HFOs and HFO/HFC blends

Further development projects with “Low GWP” refrigerants. For specific applications, Chemours has developed a non-flammable (A1) R410A alternative, which is marketed in selected countries and regions under the trade name Opteon TM XP41 – lis...

https://www.bitzer-refrigerantreport... 

EDGE Guidance Document for Refrigerant Selection to Reduce ...

Apr 03, 2017  · system design that reduces refrigerant use, evaporative coolers (swamp coolers) that do not use refrigerants (because the water acts as a coolant), and so on. Section V provides a quick reference list of low GWP and ...

https://edgebuildings.com/wp-content... 

OWNER’S MANUAL (English)

refrigerant recovery machines this equipment has been verified by underwriters laboratories inc. to meet epa’s minimum requirements for recovery equipment intended for use with all systems containing refrigerants from ari740-98 categories iii, i...

https://www.cpsproducts.com/wp-conte... 

Desirable Properties of Refrigerants - Chemical ...

Low Freezing Point Refrigerants should have low freezing point than the normal operating conditions. It should not freeze during application. Water for example cannot be used below 0 Deg C.Low Condensing Pressure The lower the condenser pressure...

https://chemicalengineeringsite.in/d... 

Options for Low-GWP Refrigerants in Small Air-Conditioning ...

corresponding to refrigerants with a relatively low critical temperature and operating at moderately high pressures. A search in an exhaustive chemical database for fluids having the identified thermodynamic parameters as well as acceptable chemic...

https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/... 

NRI Reference Guide - National Refrigerants, Inc.

NRI’s Refrigerant Reference Guide, 6th Edition, contains the latest information on R-22 alternatives, the 2010 EPA regulations, as well as all of the standard technical data on refrigerants, refrigerant blend behavior tutorial, retrofit procedur...

https://refrigerants.com/resources/r... 

Talk:List of refrigerants - Wikipedia

I am by no means an expert on refrigerants, but I happened to notice that dimethyl ether has an ASHRAE number (E170): http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/1933 However, dimethyl ether does not appear in the Wikipedia List of refrigerants ... is t...

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CHARACTERISTICS OF REFRIGERANTS - tpub.com

CHARACTERISTICS OF REFRIGERANTS Pure R-12 (CC 1425F425) is colorless. It is odorless in concentrations of less than 20 percent by volume in air. In higher concentrations, its odor resembles that of carbon tetrachloride. It has a boiling point of -...

http://firecontrolman.tpub.com/14104... 

Hydrocarbon Refrigerants - Refrigerant HQ

Hydrocarbons are one of the most basic elements found on Earth. They consist entirely of hydrogen and carbon. In the refrigeration and air conditioning world hydrocarbons can be used as refrigerants. Some of the most commonly used hydrocarbon refr...

https://refrigeranthq.com/refrigeran... 

The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol: HFC Phase …

refrigerants. In the case of refrigerants which are mixtures (or blends) of more than one refrigerant, the GWP is calculated as a mass-weighted average of the individual components. That is, to calculate the GWP of a blend, one simply adds the GWP...

https://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/... 

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